BIO 181 Lecture 2.3

Lecture 2.3: Independent Assortment


In the second half of Mendel’s seminal paper he begins to look at how multiple traits are passed together. He begins with the 2 simple seed traits–shape and color. His observations lead him to the correct conclusion that the traits he studied were passed independently of each other. Even more importantly, just from the underlying mathematical patterns in his results, he predicted the existence of meiosis despite not knowing anything about chromosomes–they hadn’t been discovered yet.


  1. Read Sections 14.3 and 14.4 in the textbook.
  2. Download Lecture 2.3 slides.
  3. Do one of the following:
    1. In-person section: Attend Lecture 2.3.
    2. Online section: Watch the following videos:
      1. Video 2.3.1, Mendel’s second observations.
      2. Video 2.3.2, Mendel predicts meiosis.
  4. Complete the questions on Study Guide 2.3.


After completing the activities, log into Canvas, launch BIO 181 and complete Lec 2.3 Quiz.

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