Lecture 3.5 Competencies and Study Guide



Primary tumor
Secondary tumor


  1. Explain the properties that make a tumor malignant (cancer).
  2. Explain what it means for a tumor to be invasive.
  3. Describe the process of metastasis in cancer.
  4. Describe at least 2 of the hallmarks of cancer presented by Hanahan and Weinberg (2000).
  5. Explain the 2 major signaling concepts–proliferative signals and proliferation suppressors–that control how and when healthy cells exit G0 and reenter G1.
  6. Describe in detail the type of mutation and its consequences in the child described with retinoblastoma. (Note: this is a classic case that helped determine the role of inherited mutations in cancer.)
  7. Describe the cytogenetic location of the RB1 gene.
  8. Describe the function of the pRB protein in molecular detail–how is it related to E2F?
  9. Explain how a single mutation in the RB1 gene that inactivates the pRB protein is related to the cause of cancer.
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